Group efforts are targeting innovative solutions for high-quality trace analysis applications of electroanalytical techniques in medicine, pharmacy, biotechnology, and environmental science, industrial process control and material characterization. Central aspects of related work are (1) automation, simplification and miniaturization of technical procedures, (2) enhancement of analytical figures of merits (sensitivity, linear range, detection limit, local detection ability etc.) and (3) broadening of the measurable target range and extension to new analyte classes that cannot be addressed with existing forms of sensors and electrochemical assays.
Miniaturization of the active electrode area of sensors for voltammetric analysis from the common mm to the low micrometer scale or below leads to improved signal-to-noise ratio for analyte detection and also facilitates spatially resolved measurements. Varied for micro- and nanoelectrode construction may be the geometry of the detecting surface and the surface material. Decreasing voltammetric cell volumes from milliliter to micro- to picoliter levels is, on the other hand, driven by (1) ‘Green Analytical Chemistry’’ concerns for chemical waste prevention/minimization and the related motivation for responsible use of chemical resources, (2) budget-related needs to handle very expensive redox-active compounds economically and (3) the requirement to analyze samples that are obtainable only in small quantities. A main group’s interest is the establishment of innovative fabrication methodologies for miniaturized sensors with the potential for applications to routine laboratory electroanalysis. Developed procedures should match the requirements of marked simplicity and cost effectiveness in order to promote widespread applications, especially in laboratories with limited budgets and no access to modern micro-/nanofabrication facilities. Targets of research efforts are exceptional graphitic carbon micro- and nanoelectrodes and special metal versions as, for instance, copper microelectrodes in single or arrayed miniaturized electrode layout.
Also an important target of group undertakings is the creation of cheap and easy to make and use miniaturized electrochemical cells, for convenient and speedy routine low-microliter volume voltammetry. Developed technical solutions should be suitable for work with common (commercial) mm-sized disk-shaped noble metal, boron-doped diamond and glassy carbon electrodes but also be adaptable for an easy implementation of micro- and nanoelectrode equivalents or homemade sensor constructions. Special additional strength of the favored prototype mini cell designs shall be a marked user friendliness including superior adaptability, simplicity of repetitive use and accuracy for trace level analyte quantification.
- Schulte A., Chow R.H. Analytical Chemistry 70, 985-990 (1998).
- Schulte A., Chow R.H. Analytical Chemistry 68,:3054-3058 (1996).
- Schulte A., Schuhmann W. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 46, 8760–8777 (2007).
- Sripirom J., Schulte A. Carbon 49, 2402-2412 (2011).
- Sripirom J., Kuhn S., Jung U., Magnussen O., Schulte A. Analytical Chemistry, 85, 837-842 (2013).
- Sripirom J., Schulte A. Analytical Chemistry, Submitted and under review (2017).
Dr. Albert Schulte (Professor)
Ms. Pattarawan Intasian
Ms. Vinutsada Pongsupasa
Mr. Kridsadakorn Prakinee
Ms. Supacha Buttranon
Ms. Pangrum Punthong
Ms. Kittiya Sakdaphetsiri
Mr. Nattanon Akeratchatapan
Ms. Nuttanun Kutrakul
Mr. Thana Thaweeskulchai
Ms. Jittima Phonbuppha
Mr. Pratchaya Watthaisong
International Research Collaborator:
Prof. Wolfgang Schuhmann
Prof. Mike Ludwig
University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh/Scotland (UK)